Common Injuries in Detroit Car Accidents and Their Legal Implications

car accident

Car accidents can result in a wide range of injuries, varying in severity from minor cuts and bruises to life-altering disabilities. Understanding these common injuries and their legal implications is essential for both accident victims and legal professionals. Let’s explore the most common types of car accident injuries and the legal ramifications associated with those injuries.

Whiplash And Neck Injuries

One of the most prevalent injuries in car accidents is whiplash, which occurs when the head is suddenly jerked forward and then backward. This rapid motion can strain the muscles and ligaments in the neck, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced range of motion. While whiplash injuries are often considered minor, they can have long-lasting effects and may require extensive medical treatment, including physical therapy and pain management.

From a legal standpoint, proving a whiplash injury in a car accident case can be challenging. Insurance companies may dispute the severity of the injury or argue that it was pre-existing. However, with proper documentation from medical professionals and experienced legal representation, victims of whiplash can pursue compensation for medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering.

Head Injuries And Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs)

Head injuries are another common consequence of car accidents, ranging from mild concussions to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). These injuries can result from the head striking the steering wheel, dashboard, or windows during a collision. Symptoms of head injuries may include headaches, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, and nausea.

In Michigan, victims of head injuries in car accidents may pursue compensation through a personal injury lawsuit or by filing a claim with their insurance company. However, proving the extent of a head injury and its impact on the victim’s life may require medical documentation, expert testimony, and thorough legal representation. Additionally, Michigan’s no-fault insurance system may affect the compensation available to victims of head injuries, making it essential to consult with an experienced attorney.

Spinal Cord Injuries

Spinal cord injuries are among the most severe consequences of car accidents, often resulting in paralysis or permanent disability. These injuries occur when the spinal cord is damaged by forceful impact or compression, leading to loss of sensation and motor function below the site of the injury. Victims of spinal cord injuries may experience partial or complete paralysis, requiring lifelong medical care and rehabilitation.

In Michigan, victims of spinal cord injuries in car accidents may be entitled to compensation for medical expenses, lost income, and pain and suffering. However, navigating the legal process for obtaining compensation can be complex, especially when dealing with insurance companies and at-fault parties. Working with an experienced attorney who understands Michigan’s laws and regulations regarding spinal cord injuries is crucial for ensuring that victims receive the full compensation they deserve.

Broken Bones And Orthopedic Injuries

Broken bones and orthopedic injuries are common in car accidents, resulting from the forceful impact of collisions. These injuries can affect any part of the body, including the arms, legs, ribs, and pelvis. Fractures and orthopedic injuries can cause severe pain, swelling, and mobility limitations, requiring surgery, physical therapy, and long-term rehabilitation.

In Michigan, victims of broken bones and orthopedic injuries may pursue compensation through a personal injury lawsuit or by filing a claim with their insurance company. However, the amount of compensation available may vary depending on the severity of the injury, the victim’s medical expenses, and the impact on their daily life. Working with a knowledgeable attorney who can advocate for their rights and negotiate with insurance companies is essential for maximizing compensation for these types of injuries.

Soft Tissue Injuries

Soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions, are common in car accidents and can affect muscles, ligaments, and tendons throughout the body. These injuries often result from sudden, forceful movements during collisions and can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility. While soft tissue injuries may not be immediately apparent after an accident, they can worsen over time without proper medical treatment.

In Michigan, victims of soft tissue injuries may be entitled to compensation for medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering. However, proving the extent of these injuries and their impact on the victim’s life may require documentation from medical professionals, including diagnostic tests and treatment records. Working with an experienced attorney who understands how to build a strong case for soft tissue injuries is essential for obtaining fair compensation.

Psychological And Emotional Injuries

Car accidents can also have profound psychological and emotional effects on victims, leading to conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. These injuries may result from the trauma of the accident itself, as well as the ongoing stress of dealing with injuries, medical treatment, and financial concerns. Psychological and emotional injuries can significantly impact a victim’s quality of life and may require therapy or counseling to address.

In Michigan, victims of psychological and emotional injuries may be entitled to compensation for mental anguish, emotional distress, and loss of enjoyment of life. However, proving these types of injuries in a car accident case can be challenging, as they are not always visible or easily quantifiable. Working with an attorney who understands how to document and demonstrate the impact of psychological and emotional injuries is crucial for obtaining fair compensation.

Why You Need A Detroit Car Accident Lawyer For Your Injury Claim

Car accidents can result in a wide range of injuries, from minor cuts and bruises to life-altering disabilities. Understanding the common types of injuries sustained in car accidents and their legal implications is essential for both accident victims and legal professionals. By working with experienced attorneys who understand the complexities of car accident cases and Michigan’s car accident laws, victims can pursue fair compensation for their injuries and begin the process of rebuilding their lives.

Contact Our Detroit Car Accident Lawyers For Exceptional Legal Help

If you or someone you care about has been injured in a car accident in Detroit, it’s crucial to understand how to protect your legal rights and navigate the personal injury claims process. At Ravid & Associates, P.C., we are dedicated to advocating for the justice and economic compensation your case deserves. With our decades of experience and deep understanding of car accident laws in Michigan, we’re here to help you every step of the way.

Don’t face this challenging situation alone. Contact our Detroit car accident attorneys at Ravid & Associates, P.C. today by calling (248) 948-9696 to receive your free consultation. Let us be your advocate in pursuing fair compensation and securing a brighter future.


How Photos And Video Can Help Win Your Detroit Car Crash Case

car crash

Millions of car crashes happen annually in the United States. Some of them are only minor fender benders, but others result in devastating, life-changing injuries for those involved. If you were in a Detroit car accident recently, there is a chance it was due to another driver’s negligence or recklessness. In this case, you could file a personal injury lawsuit to recover compensation for your injuries and losses.

You can aid your legal case by following the advice below about taking photos and videos after the car accident. If you have questions or want to file a lawsuit, our Detroit car accident attorneys at Ravid & Associates are highly qualified to assist you. Our attorneys have obtained more than $350 million in settlements and verdicts for clients. We understand how to handle insurance companies, and our trial attorneys will safeguard your rights in court.

Why Photos And Video Are Important After A Detroit Car Crash

Michigan is now a no-fault state for car accidents, which means your auto insurance will usually pay for your initial medical expenses and other damages. However, it is still possible to file a personal injury lawsuit for certain losses, including pain and suffering. Thus, it is still essential to collect accident evidence to build a legal case if you decide to file a suit.

This is where taking pictures and videos after an auto accident is vital. Remember, a successful car accident claim is constructed on evidence and details. Taking videos and photos of the accident scene can be some of the most critical evidence in your case. Here is why:

Shows Damages To Vehicles

It is common for one party to argue that there was no damage to a particular vehicle or it was ‘only a scratch.’ The at-fault driver also could say that some of the vehicle damage happened after the incident. While insurance companies will take photos and videos of the vehicle damages, this will not happen for a few days. You can help your property damage case by taking photos and video of vehicle damages after the accident. Your images will have a time stamp, so it is easy to prove when they were taken.

Shows Your Injuries

Suppose you want to file a personal injury lawsuit later because of your severe injuries and pain and suffering. You will need to prove that you have injuries, and they stem from the Detroit car crash. Pictures of your injuries at the crash scene may be helpful to prove your injuries and how they happened.

Not every injury is apparent, such as head trauma, but cuts, bruises, and scrapes at the crash scene are essential evidence in photos and videos. Also, take images of your injuries a few days after the accident; swelling and bruising may take time to manifest.

Shows Vehicle Positions

You can aid your legal case by videoing and photographing the vehicle positions before the police move them. Vehicle positions after the accident may be critical evidence to assign liability.

Shows How The Crash Happened

Physical evidence at the scene could show how the accident happened. For example, if a vehicle ran a red light and smashed into your car, there could be skid marks showing when the driver tried to stop. Or, a patch of black ice could show how a driver lost control. Taking detailed photos and videos of the crash scene from several angles can also help your case.

May Find Other Helpful Evidence

Taking photos and videos of witnesses whose contact information was not obtained could help find them later. Images of nearby buildings also can help if the police want to get security footage that shows how the accident happened.

Do You Need To Have Serious Injuries To Sue?

As noted earlier, Michigan is a no-fault state, but you can still sue for damages in certain circumstances. State law says that you must have a ‘serious impairment of an important bodily function’ to file for pain and suffering damages. In many accidents, this issue will be decided by a judge who decides if your case can move forward.

However. most injured parties typically qualify if they have bone fractures, ruptured discs, or a brain injury. If you suffered permanent disfigurement, you also could be eligible.

Proving that you have a severe impairment means that our car accident attorneys will rely on your medical records and statements to show how your injuries affect your life. The insurance company may claim that your injuries are not severe, but Ravid & Associates will work hard to overcome those arguments.

In addition to money for serious injuries, you could be entitled to funds for emotional distress. Often, mental anguish and emotional distress after a car crash and the recovery process are a large part of the settlement or award. You could have emotional distress after a car accident if you have depression, anxiety, or inability to work or engage in activities you enjoy.

If the case involves a fatality, it will typically qualify for damages under state law. The family members of the deceased may wish to file a Michigan wrongful death lawsuit and sue the at-fault driver. Your family may be entitled to damages for the deceased’s pain and suffering, burial and funeral costs, and lost future income and inheritance.

Contact Our Detroit Car Accident Attorneys

Far too many car accidents happen in Detroit on 8 Mile Road, 7 Mile Road, Joy Road, and many others. Defensive driving can help you avoid some accidents, but others may be unavoidable. If another driver hits and injures you in Detroit, you need an aggressive and experienced legal advocate to get the money you deserve.

Our Detroit car accident attorneys at Ravid & Associates have obtained millions of dollars in settlements and verdict awards over the years, and we may be able to do the same for you. Our attorneys have over 180 years of combined legal experience helping injured clients in Detroit get the compensation they deserve. Call (248) 948-9696 to talk to one of our Detroit auto accident attorneys about your case.


How To Document An Auto Accident To Help Win Your Case

auto accident

Too many people in Michigan are hurt in preventable auto accidents every day. In most of these crashes, someone’s negligence or carelessness led to the mishap. If liability can be proven for the accident, the injured person could receive compensation for their injuries, lost earnings, and pain and suffering.

Obtaining compensation, however, is easier said than done. Following specific steps to document an auto accident is critical to winning your case. Use the information in this article to document your auto accident so you can receive the best settlement. If you need assistance with your car accident case, our Detroit car accident attorneys at Ravid & Associates have decades of successful legal experience and are ready to fight for you.

Why Does Auto Accident Evidence Matter?

In most Detroit car accidents, the plaintiff and defendant will offer conflicting stories about what happened. The liable party or their insurance company may dispute your account of the crash to avoid paying a settlement. Also, the insurance company may challenge the damages you claim. For instance, the defendant may cast doubt on the extent of your injuries or the amount of lost earnings you have.

Car accident victims have the burden of proof to show that another party was at fault and they suffered losses because of the incident. Damages to which you could be entitled include medical bills, lost earnings, pain, suffering, and disability. However, you must prove your case by a preponderance of the evidence, which requires careful and thorough documentation.

Evidence Related To The Auto Accident

First, you need to offer complete evidence about how the auto accident happened, such as the vehicles involved, where each was going, who was at fault, and where the accident occurred. This accident documentation information can come in many forms, such as pictures, witness statements, video, and reports from law enforcement. If all of the following evidence seems overwhelming, do not be alarmed: Our Detroit auto accident attorneys at Ravid & Associates will assist with gathering this critical evidence:

Photos

After the accident, take as many photos as you can. Some of the things you should photograph are:

  • External damage to all vehicles in the accident
  • Where the accident happened and the general surroundings
  • Road signs or traffic signals
  • Internal damage to your car
  • Vehicle positions after the crash
  • Lighting and weather conditions
  • Any icy or wet road conditions present
  • Any skid marks or scattered vehicle debris
  • Any visible injuries you have

Eyewitness Testimony

Obtain their contact information and names if there were witnesses to the accident. When law enforcement arrives at the scene, tell them who the witnesses are so they can get their official statements. If there is a car accident lawsuit, eyewitness testimony can be compelling evidence that back up your version of what happened.

Law Enforcement Report

Law enforcement officers called to the accident scene will fill out a police report and should give you a copy. Your insurance company will need this information to process your claim. Your Ravid & Associates car accident attorney will also get a copy of the report to back your version of events. While the police report may not be admissible in court, it still can have important information that can benefit settlement negotiations.

Vehicle Black Box Data

Many automobiles are equipped with event data recorders, also called black boxes. These devices often contain important information that can be used to analyze how an accident happened. For instance, the black box could include information such as throttle speed, airbag deployment, brake application, steering angles, and vehicle and engine speed. Your attorney will help to collect this vital information that could be important to your claim or lawsuit.

Evidence Documenting Your Damages

It is insufficient to show that another driver caused the accident. You also must prove that you suffered harm and losses because of the other driver’s negligence. This evidence usually consists of some or all of the following:

Medical Records

You need thorough medical records to prove that your injuries are related to the accident. For instance, your medical records may include ER treatments, physician visits, surgeries, hospitalizations, and physical therapy.

Expert Witness Statements

Your car accident attorney may rely on expert testimony from doctors or other professionals to relate the extent of your injuries and how they affect your life. The testimony of expert witnesses is essential to determine the value of your case.

Pain And Suffering Evidence

Pain and suffering damages frequently comprise most of a car crash settlement. It can be challenging to place a dollar amount on pain and suffering, but it is critical to show how the accident has affected your life. Your car accident attorney will play an integral part in documenting how your life has been affected, such as chronic pain and emotional trauma from the injuries. Also, if your accident injuries have affected your family members, more compensation could be in order.

More Steps To Win Your Car Accident Case

Assembling the above evidence will play a vital role in a successful car accident claim or lawsuit. There are other things that you should and should not do to increase the chances of a significant settlement or verdict award:

  • Stay at the crash scene and only leave once instructed by police.
  • Call 911 and request an ambulance for anyone who is injured.
  • Call the police to the crash scene even if you think no one is injured.
  • Only sign legal documents with your attorney present.
  • Do not talk to other drivers about the accident.
  • Do not apologize for the accident to anyone at the scene.

Hire Our Detroit Car Accident Attorneys To Represent You

The Detroit car accident attorneys at Ravid & Associates have been assisting car accident victims like you for years. Our attorneys will give your case the personal legal attention it needs for a successful outcome and can help you document your accident and injuries. Whether you have suffered minor or more severe injuries, you deserve maximum compensation when another party was at fault for your accident. Call our Detroit car accident attorneys today at (248) 948-9696 for a consultation.


The Most Dangerous Intersections In Detroit

dangerous intersections

Most people in Detroit get around by car, but there are many severe accidents in the city daily, and sometimes they are fatal. Some of the most serious accidents happen in busy Detroit intersections – of the 24,687 auto accidents in the city in 2017, 10,288 happened in intersections, and more than 80% of those were freeway intersections.

Below is detailed information about the most dangerous intersections in the city, and you have been hurt in a car accident, speak to our Detroit car accident attorneys for assistance.

Gratiot Avenue

The year 2021 saw dozens of serious car accidents at Gratiot Avenue and Conner Street. Many of these crashes left people with injuries. Gratiot Avenue is situated in one of the country’s most dangerous zip codes.

Unfortunately, Gratiot Avenue is dangerous for both pedestrians and drivers. People living in the area say the road is similar to driving on a highway because people drive so fast. Speeding is one of the most common causes of fatal car accidents nationwide.

Conant Street And East Davison Street

One of the deadliest intersections in Michigan is Conant Street and East Davison Street. Many deadly accidents happened there in 2021, many of them because of drunk driving. If a drunk driver hurts you, there could be criminal and civil liability, so speak to a car accident attorney.

Linwood Street and West Davison Street

Linwood Street often has poorly maintained roads and sidewalks, making it more hazardous for drivers and pedestrians. A broken fire hydrant making a five-foot-deep divot in the road was not repaired for months. This caused many damaged vehicles and accidents. If you can file a claim for your losses, you might be able to file a claim against the local government for your losses.

Greenville Road And 7 Mile Road

In December 2022, several cars on Greenfield Road and 7 Mile Road were observed by police to be drifting. This is making a motor vehicle slide through a turn with the front of the car pointed in the opposite direction of the turn. The cars did several donuts and other reckless actions, including turning the vehicles in tight circles and stomping on the gas.

This is dangerous driving behavior that happens in more Detroit intersections and roads. No one was injured in this incident, but if you see drifting and other reckless driving actions, call the police immediately.

More Dangerous Detroit Intersections – Crash Statistics

Other intersections in the city are hazardous. Here are crash statistics for some of the most dangerous ones:

  • 11 Mile Road, I-696, and Van Dyke Avenue – 194 auto accidents
  • 18.5 Mile Road and Van Dyke Avenue – 165 auto accidents
  • Telegraph Road and 12 Mile Road – 150 auto accidents
  • Schoolcraft Road and Telegraph Road – 112 auto accidents
  • Orchard Lake Road and 14 Mile Road – 144 auto accidents
  • I-75 and Big Beaver Road – 120 auto accidents
  • Ford Road and Lilley Road – 109 auto accidents

What Makes Some Intersections More Hazardous?

There are many factors that make some Detroit intersections more dangerous than others:

  • More cars in less space: If you drive on a busy road and through chaotic intersections in Detroit, one wrong move by a driver can cause a chain reaction accident. If there are multiple injured parties and serious injuries, the no-fault auto insurance required in Michigan might not be enough to cover your damages.
  • Aggressive driving: People driving in traffic tend to be more aggressive, leading to speeding and running red lights, among other aggressive behavior. Many severe accidents happen in busy Detroit intersections when one last driver tries to get through when the light turns red.
  • Not understanding driving laws: Recent crash statistics in Detroit showed that about 25% of auto accidents in intersections involve drivers from 15-24. These are inexperienced drivers who may not understand right-of-way and other traffic laws.
  • Distracted driving: As mobile phones have become commonplace, more drivers are driving distracted, taking text messages, and surfing the Internet when driving. This is against the law in Michigan, and needless to say, is dangerous behavior in busy Detroit traffic.

How To Avoid Car Accidents In Detroit

There are at least 6 million car accidents in the US annually, and many are in Detroit. Some accidents can be avoided by following these principles:

Intersections

At least 50% of auto accidents happen in intersections. There are several things to keep in mind when going through Detroit intersections:

  • Do not accelerate through an intersection because it increases reaction times if something unexpected happens, such as a driver running the light.
  • Do not hit the gas when there is a yellow light. You should only go through a yellow if you do not have enough time to stop safely.
  • Avoid intersections with no left turn arrow if you can. The more times you must judge oncoming traffic to make the left turn safely, the greater the chances of an accident.

Trust

This means you should not trust that other drivers will act prudently. They may not make a wise decision, so follow these tips:

  • You should not be in a position where an accident is avoided because the other driver acted. If you are at other drivers’ will on the road, the chances of accidents rise. For example, if you change into the left lane because the right is slowing down, assume another driver in the right lane might pull out suddenly.
  • Do not follow the driver in front of you too closely. You do not know when a driver ahead will hit the brakes.

Speed

  • More car accidents happen because of speeding than any other cause. So, remember these guidelines:
  • On the highway, slower traffic is usually on the right. While often slower, driving in the right lane is safer than in higher-speed lanes.
  • Keep to the speed limit. Driving already takes a lot of concentration and skill, and speeding only makes it harder and more hazardous.

Contact Our Detroit Car Accident Attorneys Today

Detroit has its share of hazardous intersections, and if you were hurt in a car accident, you probably need help with your medical bills and other expenses. Please contact our Detroit car accident attorneys at Ravid & Associates, P.C., at (248) 948-9896 for a free legal consultation.


Detroit Auto Accident Statistics

car accident statistics

The damages and losses suffered after a Detroit car accident can threaten your livelihood and family. Plus, the no-fault laws in Michigan can make it difficult to obtain proper compensation, but having a car accident lawyer can help. Learn about Detroit and Michigan car accident statistics and related information below, and speak to our Detroit car accident attorneys if you have a case.

Too Many Serious And Fatal Auto Accidents In Detroit

A report entitled Detroit Comprehensive Safety Action Plan was released in 2022 and had many sobering statistics about the city’s serious and fatal car accidents. As of 2020, the city’s auto accident fatality rate per capita was #2 among America’s largest cities, and the pedestrian death rate was #3.

The report states that about 108 people died in traffic crashes annually in Detroit between 2017 and 2021. The fatal wreck average in Detroit continued to rise steadily and climbed significantly during the pandemic, outpacing many other large cities in the country. Also, the overall number of Detroit residents seriously injured or killed in auto accidents rose 47% from 2014 to 2021.

Between 2019 and 2020, traffic deaths on Detroit’s local roads increased from 94 to 150, which was a startling 50% increase in only a year, which far eclipses the national trend. With 150 fatalities, 2020 was the worst year on Detroit roads since 2004. Fortunately, fatalities fell to 123 in 2021, a 31% increase from 2019.

The report continues that compared to other large US cities, Detroit is an outlier. It is at the top of the list for overall crash deaths per capita and pedestrian deaths per capita, as of 2020. In 2020, Detroit had 28.71 deaths per 100,000 people and 6.16 pedestrian deaths per 100,000 people, which ranks second and third, respectively, for US cities with at least a 500,000 population.

Michigan Auto Accident Facts And Statistics

In Michigan, there is approximately one death annually for every 100,000 residents, which is one of the worst rates in the entire country. Also, recent crash statistics show that Michigan traffic fatalities hit a 16-year peak in 2021. Here are some unsettling facts about car accidents in Michigan:

Fatal Car Accidents High In Michigan

If you live in Detroit or Michigan, be aware that 40% of all accidents in the state kill someone every year. This is not as many as in big states such as Texas or California, but Michigan is #2 only to Florida, where 33% of all car accidents kill someone annually.

Michigan Is #2 On Deadly Accidents Per Mile

Michigan drivers often face heavy traffic, especially in the Detroit metro area. Unfortunately, Michigan is second in the nation for the most fatal accidents per mile. This number is determined by dividing the number of auto accidents that killed someone by the miles driven by the average Michigan driver in 2014. So, while Michigan has fewer deadly crashes, they are often more severe and deadly.

Detroit Is The Deadliest In The State For Car Accidents

Like any large city, Detroit has many fatal car accidents, where the most fatal crashes happen in the state. Also, the number of deadly collisions in Detroit has risen for many years.

Winter Months Have The Most Fatal Accidents

Plenty of snow and ice in winter leads to more severe and fatal crashes across Michigan. This is why many people leave Michigan in the winter for sunnier climates and return in the spring.

What To Do After A Detroit Car Accident

The numbers indicate that too many serious and fatal auto accidents happen in Detroit and Michigan. Unfortunately, serious accidents are rising in Detroit, often due to speeding, running red lights, DUI, texting and driving, and even drag racing. If you have been in a car accident in Detroit, there are several actions you should take:

Stop Immediately

No one wants to be hassled with a car accident, but stop your vehicle immediately if it happens. Whether it is a major wreck or a minor fender-bender, you and the other drivers should immediately stop and remain at the scene. You may be charged with hit-and-run if you leave the crash scene.

Move Your Car To The Side Of The Road

After a crash on a busy Detroit road, vehicles may block traffic, leading to more accidents. Move your car to the side of the street so other cars can safely pass. Move to a safe location away from traffic and wait for the police.

Call 911

After a crash, people can get emotional and stressed. It is best to call 911 in all cases so that the police and first responders come to the scene to assess the situation and treat the injured. Having professionals at the accident scene can defuse arguments, and the police report could be a critical piece of information for a claim.

Document The Crash Scene

One of the critical reasons to hire a car accident attorney is they will investigate the crash to find out who caused it. If your at-fault insurance benefits do not cover your damages, it could be possible to file a claim against the other driver. This means proving liability could be critical. Your attorney will investigate what happened, but you can help them by collecting evidence after the crash.

For example, take pictures of all vehicles in the wreck, including their positions on the road. If the crash happened in an intersection, take wide-angle shots that show the entire crash scene. Also, take photos or video road signs, visible car damages, and any injuries you or your passengers have.

Get Medical Treatment

A medical professional should always see you to check for injuries. Even a ‘minor’ injury could flare up into something serious a day or two later. Delaying medical treatment is a common reason an insurance company denies a claim.

Contact Our Detroit Car Accident Lawyers Now

Were you seriously injured recently in a Detroit car accident? Even with the state’s no-fault laws, you could be eligible for damages in a lawsuit in limited circumstances. Please contact our Detroit car accident attorneys at Ravid & Associates, P.C., at (248) 948-9896 for a consultation.